Buckyballs

The Homœopathic Proving of

Carbo Fullerenum

Introduction

Introduction

Pharmacy

Time and dates

Provers

Classification of symptoms

Introduction

Carbo Fullerenum

Buckyballs, Buckminster Fullerenes, Carbon 60

In early 2002 Dr Lionel Milgrom approached me with a sample of Carbon 60 which he felt would be an interesting substance to prove. Misha Norland and I readily agreed and the proving was conducted in October 2002 with TG20, the then third year class at the School of Homťopathy. Two provers in the United States also proved the remedy at around the same time.

Carbon is the element that is central to life, all life on Earth is carbon based. Chemistry is divided into two major groupings Organic Chemistry which studies those compounds containing carbon, and Inorganic Chemistry which looks at everything else. Carbon is also of vital importance in the Homťopathic Materia Medica. Apart from the fact that it is an important element in all the substances found in the Plant and Animal Kingdoms, many of the mineral remedies are carbon compounds. Calcarea, Baryta and Strontium are just three of the many remedies where the carbon element is present though not always even acknowledged. Even on its own it is found in three different forms in the original Hahnemanian materia medica: the pure Graphites and the impure forms of Carbo vegetabilis and Carbo animalis. To these Jeremy Sherr recently added Adamas, another pure form.

Buckyballs are a third, pure form of Carbon. They were recently discovered even though they have always been around and they have remarkable qualities that mean they will probably be central to many future technologies and may have been responsible for bringing primitive complex molecules to Earth. All these factors make it a substance with the promise of important therapeutic uses.

Carbon is such an important element because each atom has the ability to form four molecular bonds. Nitrogen can form three, Oxygen two and Hydrogen only one. It can thus form a chain or ring of carbon atoms and still have spare bonds to tack on an almost infinite variety of bits and pieces that give organic molecules their remarkable range of properties.

In its pure forms the carbon to carbon bonds are extremely strong. In Graphite the atoms are bonded in latices of hexagons, much like chicken wire, these large sheets are loosely bound together and can slide over each other which makes it a superb lubricant. This structure also leaves loose electrons which makes it an electrical conductor as good as many metals.

Graphite

 

In Diamond each atoms bonds to four others in an extremely strong tetrahedral structure. With no non-carbon bonds, except for hydrogen atoms capping the outside surfacces, and a three dimensional structure; Diamond has a strong and rigid structure that makes it the hardest substance known and gives it remarkable optical qualities.

Diamond

 

In 1985 Harry Kroto observed strange molecules of Carbon detected in deep space by radio telescopes. He visited the laboratory of Richard Smalley and Robert Curl. Together they created the sort of conditions around red giant stars near which these strange molecules were found. Vapourising Graphite in an Helium atmosphere produced a number of different Carbon molecules but by far the most common ones contained 60 atoms. The molecule was extremely stable, which suggested it might be spherical in shape. It was after much thought and experiment with models that they concluded that a shape formed by joining twelve pentagons to create a sphere of the pentagons with 20 hexagons in between was the form that such a molecule must have. It was only after they had built their model that they realised it was the shape known to everyone who had watched a soccer match.

Buckyballs

 

The structure in which a spherical or partly spherical shape is created from entirely straight elements is known as a geodesic sphere or dome and was first proposed by R Buckminster Fuller, the brilliant engineer and inventor. The most famous such dome is probably the one built for the 1967 Expo in Montreal. The similarity of the molecules to these domes led to them being called Buckminster Fullerenes, a fitting tribute to his genius. They are now usually affectionately known as Buckyballs.

Although they were a new discovery and had been first seen in outer space Buckyballs can be created in much more mundane circumstances and can even be found in the soot from a canfle flame. It took a mere five years to find a way of producing substantial quantities of the molecule. Although it is less than twenty years since Buckyballs were first discovered, there remarkable qualities have made them central to many very different areas of research.

The spherical structure and the carbon to carbon bonds of Buckyballs makes them incredibly stable. They can be fired at steel plates at enormous speeds and they bounce off. They can be squeezed at enormous pressure to 70% of their original size and are then twice as hard as diamonds, yet they will return to their original shape after being squeezed. As they are spherical they can be used as miniature ball bearings and make fantstic lubricants. Made soluable in water they become little sponges that can mop up free radicals. By adding in rings of extra carbon atoms the sphere becomes first a rugby ball shape (Carbon 70) and then a tube, which is now ussually called a Nanotube. These tubes can be used to make scanning force microscopes. Buckyballs have unusual electrical properties, especially when slightly compressed, and could be important in future generations of electronic components and are already revolutionising solar panels. Attaching other elements to the outside of Buckyballs promises a further whole range of possibilities. Buckyballs have been used in quantum experiments and are the largest objects to have been quantumized so that they exist in wave form as well as particle form.

However, it is the fact that Buckyballs are hollow that may be their most interesting feature. The space inside a Buckyball is a special one with very unusual properties. Meteorites have been found containing Buckyballs with other molecules trapped inside. It is only inside a Buckyball that many chemicals could have come to Earth from space and survived the heat of entry into the atmosphere. It has been postulated that it is only inside a Buckyball that it might be possible to keep Positronium without it annihilating. The properties of Nanotubes mean that they are likely to be central to nanotechnology, electronics and engineering.

It is hoped that this proving will allow Buckyballs to find a further use in the Homťopathic Materia Medica.

Peter Fraser

Pharmacy

A sample of pure Carbon 60 was obtained from a chemical supply company. It was run up into the 30th potency in the Hahnemannian, single vial manner at Helios Homťopathic Pharmacy. It is now available from them at www.helios.co.uk.

 

Time and dates

Times given are the actual time of day, not time from taking the remedy. XX.XX indicates no specific time was noted.

Days are numbered from 1, the day the remedy was taken. Day 0 indicates a symptom that was general and not tied to a particular date.

Day XX indicates the symptom was transcribed from a video recording of one of the group discussions about the effects of the remedy. This might be because the prover did not submit a diary or did not include this symptom in their written diary. They did not know what the substance was at the time of the recording.

 

Provers

Prover Sex Dose Potency
01P Female 1 30c
02P Female 2 30c
03P Female 1 30c
04P Female 1 30c
05P Female 1 30c
06P Female 1 30c
07P Female 1 30c
08P Male 1 30c
09P Female 1 30c
10P Female 1 30c
11P Female 1 30c
12P Female 1 30c
13P Female 1 30c
14P Female 1 30c
15P Female 1 30c
16P Female 1 30c
17P Male 1 30c
18P Male 1 30c
21G Female 0
22G Female 0

Information from provers who did not take the remedy are included and clearly indicated. The reasons for this are outlined in Group and Proving Phenomena, Observations by Misha Norland, An Article published in Issue 72 of The Homoeopath, Winter 1999. The reader should make up his or her own mind as to how to treat these symptoms.

Classification of symptoms

NS A new symptom never before experienced.

OS An old symptom previously experienced, but not in the preceding year.

RS A recent symptom experienced within the last year.

AS An altered symptom, one previously experienced but with at least one quality changed.

CS A cured symptom, a symptom that was removed during the proving.

IOS An old symptom that is felt with significantly greater intensity than before.

 

 

Copyright The School of Homœopathy 2004

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