Anti Matter

The Homœopathic Proving of

Positronium

A Remedy prepared from the
Annihilation Radiation of Positronium

an atomic structure consisting of an electron and a positron

 

Introduction

Introduction

A Map of the Remedy

The Substance

The History of the Atom

The Electron and The Positron

Positronium

The Provers

Time and dates

Classification of symptoms

Pharmaceutical Preparation

Mind Themes of Positronium

Appendix

Heisenberg, Schrödinger and Dirac

Introduction

by Misha Norland

In the autumn of 1997, while facilitating a clinical workshop in San Diego for North American students of the School of Homœopathy, I was approached by Chris Kurtz, then on our distance learning programme and just completing his PhD at the University of San Diego, offering to bring me a vial containing anti-matter. "You cannot be serious!" I exclaimed. "Quite serious." he retorted, proceeding to edify me. Naturally, I said, "Yes."

In February 1998 we initiated a formal proving of positronium at the School of Homœopathy. The stuff with which our proving was conducted was made by Chris Kurz, as I have written, in the summer of 1997. Ethanol in a vial was exposed to the radiation of decaying positronium - approximately 1,000,000,000 annihilation events being captured over a 24 hour period. This was run up to the thirtieth centesimal at Helios Homœopathic Pharmacy. This was the proving potency.

A brief account of electrons, positrons (anti-electrons) and positronium follows this introduction and some account of Paul Dirac, the Nobel prize winning scientist who first postulated the mathematics of anit-matter, is given in an appendix.

About positronium: it is formed of a positron (anti-electron) and an electron in mutual orbit; it is structured in a similar way to hydrogen, however it has almost no mass. It has been suggested that at the beginning of time the universe was largely, though momentarily composed of positrons and electrons, of positronium. It is the precursor of the hydrogen atom. Naturally, this atomic configuration is only semi-stable. In the first micro-seconds of the universe, as now, its components, electron and anti-electron annihilate each other when they get too close, when the molecule collapses. This annihilation results in a 'flash' of electromagnetic radiation. Since positronium is made up of both particle and anti-particle, it assumes a position mid way between matter and anti-matter. When it decays, it is converted into a pulse of pure energy. This threefold state has been picked up by a number of provers for whom the number 3 was prevalent in dreams and waking experiences. It also provides a convenient way to arrange and "map" (to see the map, a visual representation of the remedy, click here) the symptoms and themes of the proving, as we shall see later.

Positronium is readily produced in small quantities by the decay of the radioactive isotope Sodium 22. It is used in the most exacting imaging technology by the medical profession. This aspect was sensed and reproduced by many provers also, whose detailed appreciation of internal structures was unusually marked.

It has been postulated that in the big bang at the beginning of time, matter and anti-matter coemerged, each having opposite charge, opposite spin and moving in contrary motion, the one from time past to future, the other from time future to time past. It is therefore also postulated that somewhere there may be a parallel universe identical to our own but composed of a preponderance of anit-matter in which events occur in anti-time. Were we to meet with this anti-universe, then we would annihilate each other in one mighty flash! These aspects came out in many provers, but none as strongly as for the pharmacist at Helios who ran our positronium up to the thirtieth centicimal potency without knowing what it was. I had marked the vial from Kris Kurtz, "Misha's mystery!" She wrote about her experiences:

The Hunter: being hunted. Explosive, Running Scared. Being pursued.
Fear and fascination by death.
Final acceptance of being slaughtered or killed, like a rabbit or a lamb, something innocent. Sacrifice.
Fear, anticipation in pit of stomach. Foreboding.
Heart pathology; breathlessness from irregular, inefficient, or weak heart beat.
Lingering disease. People with repeated strokes or heart attacks, whose life force is withdrawing and they are waiting for the next attack.
Feel like my hands are being tied up and bound, as if I have been kidnapped and am about to go through an ordeal.
Weakness, trembling of the hands, loss of power.
As if I am in a situation where a member of my family has been brutally killed or dismembered. Shock that another human being could do such a thing. As if I found someone brutally murdered, particularly someone I knew.
Sinking feeling; downward pressure on the head, particularly pressure going down the back of my neck; base of skull; downward pressure. Collapse; could pass out.
Facing my worst fear; being trapped, as in a basement or cell, with a man who is going to torture and kill me slowly with great malicious delight. Cannot escape it, no way out. This is it. (This is a deep unconscious fear that has come up for me in the past. It manifests for me only when a man wants to commit to me in relationship. Therefore I have "escaped" so far since I have chosen not to commit to anyone yet, but it puts me in that irrational fear state that I will die and not be able to escape.)
Images that remind me of the Wests' cruelty and murder; of the dismemberment and killing of that young girl in London.
Very difficult moving my limbs; feel greatly restricted, powerless.
Self mutilation; slow fascination with watching a knife cut through my skin, or an artery, watching the blood; watching myself bleed to death.
The heaviness of all this just beginning to lift. Feel severely shocked and sickened by it.

Also of interest is the fact that within half a year of these proving experiences (having subsequently lost her fear of commitment) she married. So surprised was she at the changes wrought in her being, which she attributed to the depth and intensity of the dynamization process/proving experience, that she begged to be told the name of the proving material, which by then we had proved. You have only to imagine the dawning of comprehension as the significance of anti-matter and matter in conjunction, struck her! But I am getting ahead of myself.

Formal proving began amongst third year homœopathy students in March 1998. In May we video recorded the group at the School as they reviewed their proving diaries of the past two months. As we have come to expect, provers who had not taken the pill were also affected. Many of the recounted experiences were heavy. First thing next morning, before anyone had arrived, I played back the recording, finding that as the tape progressed the images began to break up. As a latter prover delved into her sensations of contraction, as if squeezed into impossible denseness accompanied by a sense of having touched pure evil, the video tape image blanked out entirely. Her disembodied voice, however, continued to describe her descent into this darkest of places. I stopped the tape, running forwards, to find that the end, the last provers accounts were technically fine: perfectly clear images. I put in another tape: no problem. I put back the proving tape and rewound it to the position of the blanked out prover: sound without vision. I marvelled at the phenomenon of the intense psychic field which the recounting of the proving had generated interfering with the electronics or the tape in the camcorder. When we had assembled for our morning teaching session the following day, we 'ran over' the physics of Positronium, from big bang to anti-matter and matter, connecting the signature to the proving: the basic split which had so clearly emerged, the 'light' side of spiritual confluence with beauty and goodness which some had felt, or experienced as detachment from the gross physical aspects of the sensuous, and the 'dark' side which the 'blanked' prover had so vividly experienced. Then I explained about the video tape, the closing down ritual which we had initiated the day before and were concluding today. And guess what: the video tape image, while still breaking up somewhat, had begun to heal itself, the image had re-emerged! Of course, there is a perfectly materialistic explanation for this phenomenon, namely progressive contamination followed by decontamination of the video head after repeated playings. However, the fact that this had been the first time that the head of this camcorder had clogged up and the fact that it now plays tapes perfectly, tends to mitigate against this explanation. Be that as it may, there must be a material component in order that the phenomenon occur! In any culture other than our own it would be felt and understood as natural that water, wind, stones, and leaves all 'speak' to us, as do birds and beasts, making our experience of the sensuous world about us that of a living, sacred organism without a split.

I, in common with a number of provers, was effected firstly in a positive way, I felt connected to spirit, but after a few weeks I descended into a deeply despairing state, feeling the suffering of humans and the Earth. This was not a new state of awareness, far from it, however it was uncomfortably intense. It has not reoccurred since the proving. As the intensity was marked, so has been the subsequent absence of eco-despair: the curative action. I wrote the following poem while in the aggravated state.

Warring against Nature

Warring against Nature, wrenching forests,
disembowelling Eden's land, these crimes
have us in the grip of Karma. Of course we attempt
to bury our distress, corpse like, in deepest graves,
above which carrion birds of ill-health craw.

Dis-ease is an expression, which like the spiral
of vultures describes a deeper location.
Here isolation, fear, shame, and hatred
are buried beneath a mound of compensations
which we have tried to turn into alters of virtue
or conceal behind screens of manic activity.

We would like to believe we are puppet masters,
yet when puppet twitches, who then is boss?
How many wars against ourselves must we fight
before it becomes evident that vanquished
and victor inhabit the same body? that monoculture
and cancer are similar, being cells of one kind?

Although from moment to moment we are
being refilled from Nature's source, yet driven
by internal unrest we turn away from clarity.
Obscured in bustle and business finer tones
are lost to stoppered ears.
Because impulses for right and wrong
coemerge, harm is engendered only
when we ignore the bird song in the forest.

See, see, red as fresh rust the vixen is abroad!
River flows deep under arching trees
where kingfisher is faster than blue fire.

A Map of the Remedy gives an interpretation of the remedy in a visual, diagrammatic form.

The Substance

By Peter Fraser

The History of the Atom

The concept of the atom, the smallest possible piece of a substance, was first proposed by Democritus in the 5th century BC. It was not a concept that appealed to Aristotle, whose philosophy guided western thought into modern times, and had no real relevance until the nineteenth century, when chemists and physicists became interested in the finer structure of matter. To some degree, the concept that there were very small particles of a substance was often assumed and it was convincingly demonstrated by Einstein and Perrin around the turn of the century.

It was in the last years of the nineteenth century that J.J.Thomson discovered that electrons were particles and that the atom was made up of smaller constituent parts. The first model of the atom was "The Christmas Pudding" model in which the atom was made up of nuclear particles spread through it, much as currants and raisins in a Christmas pudding.

In the first decade of the twentieth century Ernest Rutherford was using alpha radiation to look at the structure of the atom. He discovered than when he fired this heavy radiation at a fine sheet of gold foil most of the particles passed through, some altering course slightly, but a tiny number bounced backwards. This was as surprising as if you fired a gun at a tissue and the bullet bounced off it. The only plausible explanation was that almost all the mass of an atom was concentrated in a tiny region, perhaps just a billionth of the whole, while the rest was empty space. This led to the Solar System model of the atom in which almost all the mass and all of the positive charges are concentrated in a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons, like the sun in the solar system, and negatively charged electrons orbit it, just as the planets do the sun.

This model has serious problems but it does have the merit of being intelligible, easily visualised and it does cover the basic facts.

Over the next twenty-five years various physicists, including Einstein, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Bohr, Planck and Dirac, came up with mathematical descriptions of the atom that were increasingly accurate and which were confirmed by experiment. However, because this was a purely mathematical model, experiment tended to confirm mathematics rather than mathematics explain experiment.

By the late 1920's an accurate mathematical model of the atom had been developed. This was known as the Copenhagen Interpretation. Yet this model of the atom lacks Anschaulichkeit, this means that it cannot be visualised or graphically demonstrated.

This mathematical description is accurate but it does not describe what is there; rather, it describes the probability that a certain result will be found when a measurement is taken. However, the act of taking a measurement and the type of measurement taken have an effect on the result. If you measure a sub-atomic particle as if it were a wave, you get a result that proves it is a wave; if you measure it as if it were a particle you get a result that proves it to be a particle not a wave. In fact it seems that sub-atomic particles do not have an actual existence until they are measured and the existence that they take is affected by that measurement.

This seems to be complete nonsense but no one has been able to find a description that does make sense. Most physicists have been deeply unhappy with this state of affairs and have spent much of their time trying unsuccessfully to disprove their own theories. Einstein famously said that quantum mechanics could not be true because "God does not play at dice" though one wag replied: "Einstein does not tell God what to do."

The Electron and The Positron

The Solar System model of the Atom is the most accurate one that has Anschaulichkeit, that we can make a visual image of. It is therefore the one that is most often used to describe an atom generally. In this model the nucleus, or "sun" is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the orbiting "planets" are negatively charged electrons. Some of the electrons in an atom are less firmly held than others and in some materials they "escape" and wander about. In metals it is these loose or free electrons that "carry" a current through wires and do work in light bulbs and appliances. With the right device electrons can be dragged free and "fired" through a vacuum. It is a stream of such electrons, manipulated by magnetic fields, that hit the specially treated surface on the back of a television screen and so produce the picture.

Around 1930 Paul Dirac developed an equation that described the electron. At first he believed it was incorrect because it came up with what he thought were impossible solutions. However, he eventually accepted that these impossible solutions must be correct and he demonstrated how they proved that for every particle there was another particle that was both alike and opposite. The smallest and therefore the easiest to create and identify of these anti-particles is the anti-electron which came to be called the positron. A few years later positrons were found among the particles generated by cosmic gamma rays, radiation from outer space.

The positron is mathematically best described as an electron moving backwards through time. Although this concept is fundamental to Feynman's Quantum Electro Dynamics, it is something that even quantum physicists have trouble getting their heads around. A positron behaves just like an electron with all its attributes reversed. When an electron and a positron come together they annihilate each other, all their mass is converted into energy. This is what makes anti-matter the ideal fuel for the Enterprise on Star Trek.

At high enough temperatures this process of annihilation is reversible and during the first microseconds after the "big bang" positrons and electrons were being continuously destroyed and created. At the temperatures on Earth it is much more difficult to make anti-particles and they are only created in quantity in enormous underground particle accelerators such as CERN which is many kilometres in diameter and straddles the French-Swiss border. Positrons can be more easily made in small quantities by the decay of isotopes of elements which do not have sufficient numbers of neutrons to keep them stable. They are used medically in Positron Emission Tomography, which is probably the most accurate and detailed method of looking inside a living body.

Positronium

Although positrons and electrons will annihilate each other if they come together, in the right conditions they can form a reasonably stable substance in which an electron and a positron circle each other without immediately coming close enough to react. This substance, positronium, is much like a hydrogen atom without mass. Positronium has the ability to become three very different forms. If a neutron, the uncharged particle within the atom, were to combine with the positron a normal hydrogen atom would be formed; if an anti-neutron were to combine with the electron an atom of anti-hydrogen would be created; and if the positronium were to become unstable energy would be created and the positronium itself would become non existent. This inherent threefold potentiality: matter, anti-matter and energy, is an important characteristic of the substance.

The Provers

 

00G Group

01P

Male

13P

Female

02P

Female

14P

Female

03P

Male

15P

Male

04P

Female

17P

Female

05P

Female

18P

Female

06P

Male

21G

Female

07P

Female

22G

Male

08P

Female

23G

Female

09P

Female

24G

Female

10P

Female

25G

Female

11P

Male

26G

Female

12P

Female

27G

Female

Symptoms marked 00G were experienced by the group as a whole.

Those provers marked with a P were given a single dose of the remedy in the 30c potency.

Provers marked G did not receive the remedy but felt that they were affected by it.

Conventional methodology rules that all these symptoms, and any like them, should be ignored.

Some of those conducting provings have observed that the symptoms of non participants who are members of a proving group experience valid symptoms (see Norland, M. Group and Proving Phenomena, The Homœopath 72 1999).

The symptoms are included and clearly marked so that the reader is able to use them as he or she sees fit.

Time and dates

Times given are the actual time of day, not time from taking the remedy. XX.XX indicates no specific time was noted.

Days are numbered from 1, the day the remedy was taken. Day 0 indicates a symptom that was general and not tied to a particular date.

Classification of symptoms

NS A new symptom never before experienced.

OS An old symptom previously experienced, but not in the preceding year.

RS A recent symptom experienced within the last year.

AS An altered symptom, one previously experienced but with at least one quality changed.

CS A cured symptom, a symptom that was removed during the proving.

IOS An old symptom that is felt with significantly greater intensity than before.

Pharmaceutical Preparation

The homeopathic remedy "Positronium" was prepared using positrons from a Na-22 source, which were passed through a nitrogen gas cell to form postronium by capturing electrons off the nitrogen atoms. The resulting positronium beam then impinged on a metal surface, where the positronium atoms decayed, giving off the characteristic 511 keV radiation. A glass vial filled with 96% ethanol was exposed to this radiation for 24 hours and then potentized to 30C by the Helios Homœopathic Pharmacy. The strength of the positronium beam was approximately 10 million positronium atoms per second. A total of approximately 10^9 (1.000.000.000) annihilation events were captured by the glass vial.

Mind Themes of Positronium

The mind symptoms have been divided into the following themes. This is, of course, an entirely arbitary division and many symptoms could be placed in more than one category. It does, however, have the advantage of bringing some order and clarity to the mass of materia medica.

Matter

Weight

Earthy

Stony

Compression

Oppression

Oneness

Centred

Calm

Within oneself

Self-centred

Clarity

Clarity

Structure

History

Organized

Unsure

Torn apart

Foreign place

Energy

Energy

Curiosity

Restlessness

Weakness

Aggression

Aversion to exercise

Indifference

Practicality

Flat

Can't be bothered

Indifference to sex

Isolation

Decay

Threatened

Ugly

Destruction

Dirt

Death

Evil

 

Appendix

Heisenberg, Schrödinger and Dirac

The three eponymous equations of quantum physics were written by three very different men.

Heisenberg was of the German Romantic tradition. He hated the cities and loved climbing mountains and the poetry of Goethe. He was deeply dissatisfied that his work had proved that you could not have an accurate picture of the atom (The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) and that it could be described perfectly only through mathematics.

Schrödinger was a passionate man and a notorious womaniser. While Heisenberg found inspiration walking in the mountains, Schrödinger found his in the excitement of his latest affair of the heart. He was also unhappy with a purely mathematical model and attempted to develop a classical wave model. In the end he came up with a different mathematical model that still lacked Anschaulichkeit. He eventually showed that there were two mutually exclusive models, neither of which could be visualized and both of which were apparently true.

Paul Dirac, whose equation led to the discovery of the positron, was unusual in that he seems to have been quite happy with a purely mathematical model. His only complaint was that the mathematics was too complicated and so the theory lacked the simplicity and beauty that he sought in mathematics. He believed that: "Physical laws should have mathematical beauty."

Paul Dirac was born in Bristol in 1902. He was only 31 when he was awarded the Nobel Prize. His mother was from Bristol and his father was a Swiss immigrant who taught French at the local secondary school. Dirac later recalled "My father made the rule that I should only talk to him in French. He thought it would be good for me to learn French in that way. Since I found that I couldn't express myself in French, it was better for me to stay silent than to talk in English. So I became very silent at that time - that started very early." He later cut off all communication with his father and when he died he wrote: "I feel much freer now."

This reticence became a life long tendency to say only what was necessary, to say it in the most clear and concise way, and to say it only once. When Dirac wrote an article or gave a lecture he considered it unnecessary to change his carefully chosen phrases. When somebody in the audience asked him to explain a point he had not understood. Dirac would repeat exactly what he had said before, using the very same words. He was only interested in the big and interesting problems. "He would never, between his great discoveries, do any sort of bread and butter problem. He would not be interested at all."

Dirac had almost no feeling for poetry and literature, in which he differed from a surprising number of the great modern physicists. He commented on Crime and Punishment: "It is very nice, but in one chapter the author made a mistake. He describes the sun as rising twice on the same day." He once said to Robert Oppenheimer "How can you do both physics and poetry? In physics we try to explain in simple terms something that nobody knew before. In poetry it is the exact opposite." When Oppenheimer offered him some books to read he politely refused saying that: "reading books interfered with thought."

"Dirac's ascetic lifestyle, his indifference to discomfort or food has been likened to that of Gandhi. He neither touched alcohol nor smoked." His wife claimed that he was not an atheist, but he did once state that he was the physicist Pauli once said: "There is no God and Dirac is his prophet." His lifestyle has often been described as monastic and he was said to be one of the few physicists who could work as well on a desert island.

On being awarded the Nobel Prize his first instinct was to refuse it because he did not like publicity. However, when Rutherford pointed out that a refusal would cause even greater attention he reluctantly accepted the prize.

When at the height of his fame he was described by a London newspaper "As shy as a gazelle and as modest as a Victorian maid." When travelling with Heisenberg by boat from America to Japan, he asked "Why do you dance?" Heisenberg replied, "When there are nice girls it is a pleasure to dance." After much thought Dirac said "How do you know beforehand that the girls are nice?"

In 1937 he married Margit Wigner Balasz, the sister of a professor at Princeton. Her children from an earlier marriage adopted his name and he and Margit had two daughters. His wife said that they had a "very old fashioned, Victorian marriage." and that "although not a domineering father, he kept himself aloof from his children."

Paul Dirac trained as an engineer but when he graduated he could not find work and went back to Bristol University to study mathematics. His attitude to mathematics and to physics was always coloured by his practical training as an engineer. "I was able to see that even theories based on approximations could sometimes have a considerable amount of beauty in them. I think that if I had not had this engineering training, I should not have had any success with the kind of work that I did later on. I continued in my later work to use mostly the non-rigorous mathematics of the engineers." Thus the most mathematically rigorous of the modern physicists, perhaps the only one who was content with a purely mathematical description of the atom, credited his success to his use of non-rigorous mathematics. Another of the many paradoxes of Quantum Physics.

A little before he died Dirac was asked to talk at the University of Florida near where he then lived. He wrote in reply to the request. "No, I have nothing to talk about. My life has been a failure." Niels Bohr seems to have summed up many people's understanding of Dirac when he said, "Of all physicists, Dirac has the purest soul."

I have written at length about Dirac because many of the distinctive features of his story echo themes that came up in the proving. It is not after all surprising that the discoverer of a substance should have a certain affinity for it.

Much of this material was shamelessly culled from Paul Dirac: aspects of his life and work by Abraham Pais in Paul Dirac: The Man and his Work edited by Peter Goddard.